Journal of Medical and Surgical
Research (JMSR)


Pages: 652-659

Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001

Does Family Functioning Influence The Health-Related Quality of Life of HIV-Infected Patients?

Author: Stephen Adesope Adesina, Isaac Olusayo Amole, Adewumi Ojeniyi Durodola, Olufemi Timothy Awotunde, David Akintayo OlaOlorun, Adenike Adeniran, Louis O. Odeigah

Category: JMSR Pathogens

[Download PDF]


BACKGROUND: The family represents concentric circles of an individual’s social surroundings and holds immense potential for strength and support during times of need and crisis, like HIV-infection presents. Understanding the relationship between family functioning and HRQOL for an individual with HIV/AIDS may improve the care process and outcome for such individuals.

AIM: To determine the level of HRQOL among HIV-infected patients, and examine the effects of family functioning on HRQOL.

METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 61 HIV-infected patients aged 18 years and older selected using the systematic random sampling was conducted from January 2014 to March 2014 in the Antiretroviral (ARV) Clinic of the Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso. The abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for HIV (WHOQOL-HIV BREF) and the General Functioning scale of the Family Assessment Device were used to collect data on HRQOL and family functioning respectively. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0, and presented as descriptive and inferential statistics.

RESULTS: The mean age of the 61 respondents was 37.1---PlusMinusSymbol---8.1 years and 43 (70.5%) of them were females. The mean HRQOL scores were high (?15.0) in all domains except the Spirituality/Religion/Personal beliefs, (SRPB) domain where the mean score was medium (14.5---PlusMinusSymbol---4.2), indicating a good HRQOL in virtually all the domains. Family functioning had a positive and statistically significant effect on Physical (p=0.009) and Social relationships (p=0.041) domains of HRQOL.

CONCLUSION: Although the sample size was small and further studies are needed to ascertain the findings, this study nevertheless, demonstrated a high HRQOL for most HIV-infected respondents except in the SRPB domain, suggesting the need for more concerted effort to reorientate patients and the general public on the course of HIV infection when appropriately treated, so as to allay their undue fears about the disease. Strategies to improve family functioning are also encouraged, owing to its positive influence on HRQOL.

Keywords: Family functioning, HIV, Patients, Quality of life (Qol)


Winek JL. Systemic family therapy: From theory to practice. Los Angeles, CA: Sage; 2010.

Baños JH. McMaster family assessment device. In: Kreutzer JS, DeLuca J, Caplan B, eds. Encyclopaedia of Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Springer; 2011. p. 1535-6.

O’Leary EMM, Barrett P, Fjermestad KW. Cognitive-behavioural family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: A 7-year follow-up study. J Anxiety Disorders. 2009;23(2009):973-8.

Ylvén R. Factors facilitating family functioning in families of children with disabilities - in the context of Swedish Child and Youth Habilitation Service [PhD Thesis]. Stockholm, Sweden: Karolinska Institutet; 2013 [accessed 20/06/15]. Available from:

The WHOQOL HIV Group. Initial steps to developing the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL) module for international assessment in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care. 2003;15(3):347-57.

WHO. WHOQOL-Measuring quality of life [internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997 [accessed 20/06/13]. (WHO/ MSA/MNH/PSF/97.4). Available from:

WHO. WHOQOL-HIV BREF [internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002 [accessed 06/06/13]. (WHO/MSD/MER/02.2) Available from:

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). State of the epidemic. In: Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Global Report 2012 [internet]. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2012 [accessed 20/06/13]. Available from:

Casado A. Measurement of quality of life of HIV individuals: perspectives and future directions. Indian J Med Res. 2005;122:282-4.

Imam MH, Karim MR, Ferdous C, Akhter S. Health related quality of life among the people living with HIV. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2011;37:1-6.

Kovacevic SB, Vurusic T, Duvancic K, Macek M. Quality of life of HIV-infected persons in Croatia. Coll. Antropol. 2006;30(Suppl. 2):79-84.

Li L, Lin C, Ji G, Sun S, Rotheram-Borus MJ. Parents living with HIV in China: Family functioning and quality of Life. J Child Fam Stud. 2009;18(1):93–101.

Jia H, Uphold CR, Zheng Y, Wu S, Chen GJ, Findley K, et al. A further investigation of health-related quality of life over time among men with HIV infection in the HAART era. Qual Life Res. 2007;16(6):961-8.

Gupta SK, Shrivastava AK, Gupta P, Sharma P, Sarawagi R. A Study on the self-reported quality of life of HIV-positive slum dwellers in Mumbai, India. J Community Med Health Educ. 2012;2(8):172-9.

Krishna VAS, Bhatti RS, Chandra PS, Juvva S. Unheard Voices: experiences of families living with HIV/AIDS in India. Contemporary Family Therapy. 2005;27(4):483-506.

Iwelunmor J, Airhihenbuwa CO, Okoror TA, Brown DC, Belue R. Family systems and HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006; 27(4):321-35.

Federal Ministry of Health. Integrated national guidelines for HIV prevention, treatment and care. Abuja: National AIDS/STIs Control Programme; 2014.

Araoye MO. Subject selection. In: Araoye MO, ed. Research methodology with statistics for health and social science. Ilorin: Nathadex Publishers; 2003

O’Connell KA, Skevington SM. An international quality of life instrument to assess wellbeing in adults who are HIV-positive: a short form of the WHOQOL-HIV (31 items). AIDS Behav. 2012;16(2):452-60.

Zimpel RR, Fleck MP. Quality of life in HIV-positive Brazilians: application and validation of the WHOQOL-HIV, Brazilian version. AIDS Care. 2007;19(7): 923-30.

Hsiung PC, Fang CT, Wu CH, Sheng WH, Chen SC, Wang JD, et al. Validation of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan. AIDS Care. 2011;23(8):1035-42.

Schmitt F, Piha J, Helenius H, Baldus C, Kienbacher C, Steck B, et al. Multinational study of cancer patients and their children: factors associated with family functioning. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(36):5877-83.

WHO. WHOQOL-HIV instrument user’s manual: scoring and coding for the WHOQOL-HIV instruments [internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002 [accessed 05/06/13]. (WHO/MSD/MER/02.1). Available from:

Anand D, Puri S, Mathew M. Assessment of quality of life of HIV-positive people receiving art: An Indian perspective. Indian J Community Med 2012;37(3):165-9.

Varkevisser CM, Pathmanathan I, Brownlee A. Choosing a significance test. In: Designing and conducting health systems research projects Volume ll: Data analysis and report writing. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and Africa Regional Office (AFRO) of the WHO; 2003.

Campbell MJ, Swinscow TDV. Statistics at square one. 11th ed. Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.

Olowookere SA, Fatiregun AA, Akinyemi JO, Bamgboye AE, Osagbemi GK. Prevalence and determinants of nonadherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Infect Developing Countries. 2008;2(5):369-372.

Folasire OF, Irabor AE, Folasire AM. Quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS attending the Antiretroviral Clinic, University College Hospital, Nigeria. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2012;4(1): Art. #294, 8 pages.

dos Santos ECM, Junior IF, Lopes F. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Saúde Pública 2007;41(Supl. 2):1-7.

Fatiregun AA, Mofolorunsho KC, Osagbemi KG. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Kogi state, Nigeria. Benin J Postgraduate Med. 2009;11(1):21-7.

Odili VU, Ikhurionan IB, Usifoh SF, Oparah AC. Determinants of quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients. W. Afr. J. Pharm. 2011;22(1)343-8.

Abrogoua DP, Kamenan BAT, N'guessan K, Kablan BJ. Correlation between health-related quality of life and various therapeutic monitoring parameters of Ivorian HIV-infected patients. J AIDS Clinic Res. 2012;3:140. doi:10.4172/2155- 6113.1000140.

National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA). National HIV prevalence. In: Federal Republic of Nigeria global AIDS response, country progress report (Nigeria GARPR) 2012 [internet]. Abuja: NACA; 2012[accessed 20/06/13]. Available from:

Galvan FH, Davis EM, Banks D, Bing EG. HIV Stigma and Social Support among African Americans. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22(5):423-36.

Adedimeji AA, Alawode OO, Odutolu O. Impact of care and social support on wellbeing among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Iranian J Publ Health. 2010;39(2):30-38.

Mahalakshmy T, Premarajan KC, Hamide A. Quality of life and its determinants in people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Puducherry, India. Indian J Comm Med. 2011;36(3):203-207.

Taraphdar P, Guha RT, Haldar D, Chatterjee A, Dasgupta A, Saha B, et al. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system. Niger Med J. 2011;52(4):250-3.

Muyibi AS, Ajayi I-OO, Irabor AE, Ladipo MMA. Relationship between adolescents' family function with socio-demographic characteristics and behaviour risk factors in a primary care facility. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(1):Art. #177, 6 pages.

Jia H, Uphold CR, Wu S, Chen J, Duncan PW. Predictors of changes in health-related quality of life among men with HIV infection in the HAART era. AIDS patient care and STDs. 2005;19(6):395-405.