Join us   Log in  


Pages: 520-527
Print Article   Download XML  Download PDF

Antiviral Immune Responses: an Oerview

Author: Assiya El Kettani, Leila Jeddane, Naima Amenzoui, Ahmed Aziz Bousfiha

Category: JMSR Pathogens


An effective immune response against viral infections depends on the activation of innate immunity, Tcell immunity and humoral immunity. But in some cases, infections persist and natural host immunity becomes insufficient. This work summarizes the most relevant findings on the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathway of antiviral immunity responses and describes the specific mechanisms implicated in the case of some viruses causing a persistent infection: HSV-1 and HPV. Then we'll give examples of these persistent infections with their physiopathogenesis. The findings in molecular mechanisms of antiviral immunity may be exploited to develop new therapeutic modalities for treating persistent virus infections.

Keywords: Immune response, Persistent infections, Signaling pathways, Viral infections


  1. Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM. Fields virology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
  2. Moerman-Herzog A, Nakagawa M. Early Defensive Mechanisms against Human Papillomavirus Infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol CVI. août 2015;22(8):850?7.
  3. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell. 19 mars 2010;140(6):805?20.
  4. Barrat FJ, Elkon KB, Fitzgerald KA. Importance of Nucleic Acid Recognition in Inflammation and Autoimmunity. Annu Rev Med. 2016;67:323?36.
  5. Ivashkiv LB, Donlin LT. Regulation of type I interferon responses. Nat Rev Immunol. janv 2014;14(1):36?49.
  6. Sin W-X, Li P, Yeong JP-S, Chin K-C. Activation and regulation of interferon-β in immune responses. Immunol Res. sept 2012;53(1?3):25?40.
  7. Kawai T, Akira S. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on Toll-like receptors. Nat Immunol. mai 2010;11(5):373?84.
  8. Gay NJ, Symmons MF, Gangloff M, Bryant CE. Assembly and localization of Toll-like receptor signalling complexes. Nat Rev Immunol. août 2014;14(8):546?58.
  9. Saha SK, Cheng G. TRAF3: a new regulator of type I interferons. Cell Cycle Georget Tex. avr 2006;5(8):804?7.
  10. Fitzgerald KA, McWhirter SM, Faia KL, Rowe DC, Latz E, Golenbock DT, et al. IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. mai 2003;4(5):491?6.
  11. Honda K, Ohba Y, Yanai H, Negishi H, Mizutani T, Takaoka A, et al. Spatiotemporal regulation of MyD88-IRF-7 signalling for robust type-I interferon induction. Nature. 21 avr 2005;434(7036):1035?40.
  12. Wang L, Zhao J, Ren J, Hall KH, Moorman JP, Yao ZQ, et al. Protein phosphatase 1 abrogates IRF7-mediated type I IFN response in antiviral immunity. Eur J Immunol. 2016; 46 (10): 2409?19.
  13. 13. Rehwinkel J, Reis e Sousa C. RIGorous detection: exposing virus through RNA sensing. Science. 15 janv 2010;327(5963):284?6.
  14. Kato H, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Uematsu S, Matsui K, et al. Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity. juill 2005;23(1):19?28.
  15. Schlee M. Master sensors of pathogenic RNA - RIG-I like receptors. Immunobiology. nov 2013;218(11):1322?35.
  16. Belgnaoui SM, Paz S, Hiscott J. Orchestrating the interferon antiviral response through the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) adapter. CurrOpinImmunol. oct 2011; 23 (5): 564?72.
  17. Kawasaki T, Kawai T, Akira S. Recognition of nucleic acids by pattern-recognition receptors and its relevance in autoimmunity. Immunol Rev. sept 2011;243(1):61?73.
  18. Sun L, Wu J, Du F, Chen X, Chen ZJ. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates the type I interferon pathway. Science. 15 févr 2013;339(6121):786?91.
  19. Wu J, Sun L, Chen X, Du F, Shi H, Chen C, et al. Cyclic GMP-AMP is an endogenous second messenger in innate immune signaling by cytosolic DNA. Science. 15 févr 2013; 339 (6121): 826?30.
  20. Xiao TS, Fitzgerald KA. The cGAS-STING pathway for DNA sensing. Mol Cell. 25 juill 2013;51(2):135?9.
  21. Gray EE, Winship D, Snyder JM, Child SJ, Geballe AP, Stetson DB. The AIM2-like Receptors Are Dispensable for the Interferon Response to Intracellular DNA. Immunity. 16 2016; 45 (2): 255?66.
  22. Zhou Y, He C, Wang L, Ge B. Post-translational regulation of antiviral innate signaling. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47(9):1414?26.
  23. Liu J, Qian C, Cao X. Post-Translational Modification Control of Innate Immunity. Immunity. 19 2016;45(1):15?30.
  24. Deribe YL, Pawson T, Dikic I. Post-translational modifications in signal integration. Nat StructMol Biol. juin 2010; 17(6):666?72.
  25. Holly MK, Diaz K, Smith JG. Defensins in Viral Infection and Pathogenesis. Annu Rev Virol. 29 sept 2017;4(1):369?91.
  26. Frydrychová S, Boštíková V, Boštík P. [Classical and less known NK cells]. KlinMikrobiolInfekcniLek. déc 2016; 22(4): 152?60.
  27. Rosendahl Huber S, van Beek J, de Jonge J, Luytjes W, van Baarle D. T Cell Responses to Viral Infections - Opportunities for Peptide Vaccination. Front Immunol. avr 2014;5:171
  28. Varadarajan R, Srinivasan S, Maity S, Ghosh M. Broadly neutralizing antibodies for therapy of viral infections. 2016. 1 p.
  29. Su C, Zhan G, Zheng C. Evasion of host antiviral innate immunity by HSV-1, an update. VirolJ . mars 2016 ;13:38
  30. Khan AA, Srivastava R, Chentoufi AA, Kritzer E, Chilukuri S, Garg S, et al. Bolstering the Number and Function of HSV-1-Specific CD8+ Effector Memory T Cells and Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells in Latently Infected Trigeminal Ganglia Reduces Recurrent Ocular Herpes Infection and Disease. J ImmunolBaltimMd 1950. 1 juill 2017;199(1):186?203.
  31. Casadevall A, Pirofski L-A. A new synthesis for antibody-mediated immunity. Nat Immunol. 16 déc 2011;13(1):21?8.
  32. Bousfiha A, Jeddane L, Picard C, Ailal F, Bobby Gaspar H, Al-Herz W, et al. The 2017 IUIS Phenotypic Classification for Primary Immunodeficiencies. J ClinImmunol. janv 2018;38(1):129?43.
  33. Zhang S-Y, Casanova J-L. Inborn errors underlying herpes simplex encephalitis: From TLR3 to IRF3. J Exp Med. 24 août 2015;212(9):1342?3.
  34. UNC93B1 Symbol Report | HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. [janv 2018]. Disponible sur:
  35. Daud II, Scott ME, Ma Y, Shiboski S, Farhat S, Moscicki A-B. Association between toll-like receptor expression and human papillomavirus type 16 persistence. Int J Cancer. 15 févr 2011;128(4):879?86.
  36. Erhart W, Alkasi Ö, Brunke G, Wegener F, Maass N, Arnold N, et al. Induction of Human β-defensins and Psoriasin in Vulvovaginal Human Papillomavirus-Associated Lesions. J Infect Dis. 1 août 2011;204(3):391?9.
  37. Hubert P, Herman L, Roncarati P, Maillard C, Renoux V, Demoulin S, et al. Altered α-defensin 5 expression in cervical squamo columnar junction: implication in the formation of a viral/ tumour-permissive micro environment. J Pathol. déc 2014; 234 (4): 464?77.
  38. Tang A. Rôle des lymphocytes B dans l'immunité anti-tumorale dans un modèle murin de cancer lié au papillomavirus humain (HPV) [Internet]. Sorbonne Paris Cité; 2015 [cité 20 janv 2018]. Disponible sur:
  39. Gutierrez-Xicotencatl L, Salazar-Piña DA, Pedroza-Saavedra A, Chihu-Amparan L, Rodriguez-Ocampo AN, Maldonado-Gama M, et al. Humoral Immune Response Against Human Papillomavirus as Source of Biomarkers for the Prediction and Detection of Cervical Cancer. Viral Immunol. mars 2016; 29 (2): 83?94.
  40. Meuris F, Carthagena L, Jaracz-Ros A, Gaudin F, Cutolo P, Deback C, et al. The CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling Pathway: A New Susceptibility Factor in Human Papillomavirus Pathogenesis. PLoSPathog. déc 2016; 12(12): e1006039.
  41. Chow KYC, Brotin É, Ben Khalifa Y, Carthagena L, Teissier S, Danckaert A, et al. A pivotal role for CXCL12 signaling in HPV-mediated transformation of keratinocytes: clues to understanding HPV-pathogenesis in WHIM syndrome. Cell Host Microbe. 16 déc 2010; 8 (6): 523?33.
  42. Tassone L, Moratto D, Vermi W, De Francesco M, Notarangelo LD, Porta F, et al. Defect of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in warts, hypo- gammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome patients. Blood. 2 déc 2010; 116(23):4870?3.